Básicos de nutrición

Básicos de nutrición

Podemos decir que la comida es la base central de nuestra vida; de ella depende nuestra salud y nuestro bienestar. Estar enfermos a veces puede significar que no nos alimentamos bien y tenemos alguna deficiencia de nutrientes en nuestro cuerpo, pero por el contrario, el estar bien está ligado completamente con la buena alimentación que tengamos día a día.
De acuerdo a los criterios establecidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, una alimentación saludable debe aportar las cantidades necesarias de energía a través de hidratos de carbono, lípidos y proteínas; así como vitaminas y minerales para cubrir los requerimientos del crecimiento, el desarrollo y funcionamiento adecuado de todos los órganos.
¿QUÉ SON LOS "MACROS" O MACRONUTRIENTES?
Todos los alimentos que consumimos diariamente cuentan con todos los macronutrientes en diferentes porcentajes; existen 3 principales proteínas, lípidos y carbohidratos. Todos estos son esenciales para realizar nuestras actividades cotidianas, básicamente es lo que nos mantiene funcionando día con día. Cada persona necesita cantidades de macros diferentes; varían dependiendo del peso, estatura, estilo de vida, objetivos, entre otros.
PROTEÍNAS.
Las proteínas nos aportan 4 kcal por gramo, éstas tienen funciones enzimáticas, reguladores, estructurales, defensivas, transportadoras, receptoras. Así mismo, son esenciales para la pérdida óptima de grasa y ganancia muscular, reparación del tejido muscular, desarrollo de masa magra, y son un gran aliado del sistema inmunológico, lo mantiene sano y fuerte.
Las proteínas están constituidas por aminoácidos que se liberan y se absorben en el intestino después de la digestión. Algunos aminoácidos son sintetizados por nuestro organismo a partir de otros aminoácidos, de los hidratos de carbono y de las grasas. Aquellos que el organismo no es capaz de sintetizar son los denominados “aminoácidos esenciales” (triptófano, lisina, metionina, treonina, fenilalanina, leucina, isoleucina, valina y la histidina).
Las proteínas pueden ser de origen animal cuando proceden de carne, pescado, leche y huevo, así como derivados cárnicos (embutidos) y derivados lácteos (yogurt y quesos); éstos contienen aminoácidos esenciales. También existen proteínas de origen vegetal, y provienen de los cereales, las leguminosas, frutos secos y soja; éstos no contienen los aminoácidos esenciales. Aunque la combinación de leguminosas y cereales aportan un proteína de alto valor biológico, es decir con los aminoácidos esenciales.
Un equivalente es de aproximadamente 30 a 40 gramos, pero recuerda que un equivalente no es la porción adecuada, para saber tu porción adecuada es necesario acudir con un nutriólogo.
CARBOHIDRATOS.
Los carbohidratos son la principal fuente de energía y proceden principalmente de los vegetales. Aportan 4 kcal por gramo. Éstos se encargan de mantener nuestro cerebro y cuerpo activos. Son una fuente importante de fibra, la cual previene enfermedades y nos mantiene saludables.
Se dividen en monosacáridos, oligosacáridos y polisacáridos. Los primeros dos se absorben rápidamente en el intestino. Los disacáridos más conocidos son la sacarosa (azúcar de mesa), la lactosa (azúcar de la leche) y maltosa (procede del almidón).
Por otro lado, los polisacáridos se absorben más lentamente en el intestino, entre los principales encontramos el almidón (en vegetales como cereales, tubérculos y leguminosas).
Los carbohidratos se encuentran principalmente en los siguientes grupos de alimentos:
Cereales, leche, frutas, y en menor cantidad: verduras.
Hay que recordar que los cereales son el pan, elote, papa, camote, tortillas, pasta, arroz, cuscús, quinoa, etc. Los carbohidratos también aparecen los la leche y en el yogurt, así mismo en las frutas , y en las verduras ( jícama, zanahoria, pepino, brócoli, calabaza, etc)
GRASAS/ LÍPIDOS.
Son el nutriente energético por excelencia. Este grupo está formado por los triglicéridos, los fosfolípidos y el colesterol. Aportan 9 kcal por gramo.La mayoría de las grasas que consumimos son triglicéridos, que una vez digeridos, liberan ácidos grasos que se clasifican en función de:
La longitud de los carbonos:
  • De cadena corta ( 4-6 átomos de carbono)
  • De cadena media (8-10 átomos de carbono)
  • De cadena larga (más de 12 átomos de carbono). La mayoría de los ácidos grasos de la dieta son de cadena larga. Los de cadena media se absorben más rápidamente.
La presencial del doble enlace:
  • Ácidos grasos SATURADOS: no contienen ningún enlace. Se encuentran en las grasas animales (carnes y derivados, lácteos y huevos) y en grasas vegetales (aceites tropicales).
  • Ácidos grasos INSATURADOS:
  • AG MONOINSATURADOS: tienen un doble enlace. Están en el aceite de oliva fundamentalmente, también en aceitunas, frutos secos en general y aguacate.
  • AG POLIINSATURADOS: tienen más de un doble enlace. Si el primer doble enlace se sitúa en posición 6 se denomina ac. graso Omega 6. Se encuentran en los aceites de semillas fundamentalmente. El representante de este grupo es el ácido linoleico (18:6), que es un ácido graso esencial. Por otro lado, en este grupo también se encuentran los ácidos grasos Omega 3, denominados así cuando el primer doble enlace se sitúa en posición 3. Su fuente principal son los pescados azules. Estos ácidos grasos permiten disminuir los niveles de triglicéridos.
Las grasas saturadas incrementan las concentraciones de colesterol de la sangre y favorecen el desarrollo de la arteriosclerosis. Las grasas monoinsaturadas poseen unas grandes propiedades protectoras: efecto antioxidante frente a radicales libres, mejora la coagulación de la sangre, y se asocia con menor incidencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares y de varios tipos de cáncer (mama, endometrio, colon, próstata) o de demencias. Dentro del grupo de los poliinsaturados, los ácidos grasos omega -3, presentes en el pescado, marisco y nueces, reducen la viscosidad de la sangre y mejoran la coagulación sanguínea, por ello se asocian con protección frente a eventos cardiovasculares, mejor control de la tensión arterial y menor incidencia de muerte súbita.
La configuración del doble enlace:
  • Configuración CIS: el doble enlace se encuentra en un mismo plano. Está en la mayoría de las grasas de los alimentos.
  • Configuración TRANS: el doble enlace está en un plano diferente. La mayoría de estos ácidos grasos se deben a un proceso químico que consiste en transformar un aceite líquido en una grasa; también se encuentran de forma natural en la leche y en los derivados y en los rumiantes.
La ingesta de los ácidos grasos trans conllevan aumento del colesterol en la sangre, con aumento del colesterol LDL (“malo”) con disminución del colesterol HDL (“bueno”) con un elevado riesgo de padecer eventos cardiovasculares.
El colesterol es una grasa que se encuentra exclusivamente en los alimentos de origen animal. El exceso de colesterol en la dieta conlleva, al igual que los ácidos grasos saturados y los de configuración TRANS, un aumento del colesterol LDL y desciende el colesterol HDL, con elevado riesgo cardiovascular.
 
 
Necesitamos tener un balance adecuado entre los tres macronutrientes para lograr una vida saludable y llegar a nuestros objetivos.

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